TO HUNGARIAN PHILATELY
Suleyman's first Hungarian campaign.
The Ottoman army invaded Hungary and defeated the Habsburg forces
in the Battle of Mohács (Aug. 29) (See 1526, Aug. 29–30).
Buda and Pest fell ten days later. The Ottomans withdrew after
the Transylvanian notable John Zapolya recognized Ottoman suzerainty.
Large-scale insurrections in
Anatolia, fed largely by the resistance of Turkomans to the
imposition of direct state control and taxation. Renewed Safavid
propaganda fanned this discontent. The most serious revolt was
led by Kalender Chelebi, whose supporters defeated an initial
Ottoman expedition before being crushed (June 1527).
Suleyman's second Hungarian
campaign. After the Habsburgs took Hungary from Zapolya (1527),
Suleyman reoccupied the country and reinstated Zapolya as king.
He then mounted the FIRST OTTOMAN SIEGE OF VIENNA (Sept. 27–Oct.
15, 1529) but failed to take the city. His forces withdrew to
Istanbul, leaving the Habsburgs to continue ruling the northern
and western border areas of Hungary.
Suleyman's third Hungarian campaign. Following a new Habsburg
siege of Buda, Suleyman led a massive force to deal with the
threat and penetrate central Europe. The campaign succeeded
in conducting raids in Austria but without forcing the main
Habsburg army into battle. The two sides agreed to a peace (June
22, 1533), by which the Habsburgs abandoned their claims to
Hungary except for the border areas they had originally occupied
and agreed to pay an annual tribute to the sultan.
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