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INTRODUCTION TO HUNGARIAN PHILATELY

Hungarian Stamps and
Their Background 1871-1940

(Section 2)

Copyright 1948, Western Stamp Collector.
Reprinted with permission, 2002
.

Return to Introduction



MARIAN CARNE ZINSMEISTER, S.P.A.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I have taken this information from a number of sources that I found available, including the catalogues of Scott's, Gibbons, Michel, Szekely, etc., a large number of stamp journals, and have also received invaluable information from Bela Bauer, Ben Reeves, John Grafel, Doris and William Stericker, and the Austro Hungarian Philatelic Society members. I wish to thank all of them for their invaluable aid, which has made this booklet a fund of information which I hope you will find a worthy addition to your philatelic library.


February, 1948. MARIAN CARNE ZINSMEISTER

This booklet uses the Types and Catalogue Numbers from Scott's
Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue, 1947 edition.


 
Move to the Previous Section 1

ISSUES OF THE REPUBLIC

No. 153-167, 168-173

TYPE: A 9, A 10, A 11, A 12
ISSUED: (153-167) November 23, 1918 (168-173) December 15, 1918
DESIGNERS: (A9) Edmund Tull; (A10) W. (Vilmos) Brandmayer; (All 12) Emery Foldes

NOTES:
Regular issues of 1916-1918 overprinted in black KOZTARSASAG (Republic). Immediately following World War I Hungary set up the People's Republic with Count Karolyi as Provisional President. This lasted from the fall of 1918 until March of 1919 when the Soviet Republic, under Bela Kun, came into being. During this period these so called "Republic" stamps were issued and used.Many are known to exist with an inverted overprint.

 

No. 174-197

TYPE: A 13, A 14
ISSUED: Jan. 26, 1919
PROCESS: Typographed PERF: 15
PAPER: Watermarked double cross
DESIGNER: Edmund Tull (A13); William Brandmayer (A14)
Same design as A 9 and A 10 with the exception that the words Magyar Kir Posta have been changed to read Magyar Posta (Hungarian Post)

NOTES:
Type A 14 has a white tablet and dark numerals reverse from type A 10. The 3f claret was never placed in regular use without the overprint (see later notes)
The 1.20 K is known to exist imperf.


ISSUES OF THE SOVIET REPUBLIC

 

No. 198-202


TYPE: A 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
ISSUED: June 24, 1919
PROCESS: Lithographed
PAPER: Watermarked double cross
PERF: 12½ x 12
DESIGNER: (A 15, 16, 19) Ferenc Bokras; (17, 18) A Gara, and S. Grof
DESIGN AND HISTORY:
Karl Marx. 1818-1883, writer of "Das Kapital" from which both Socialists and Communists obtain their political beliefs.
Alexander (Sandor) Petofi. 1823-1849, writer of lyrics, embraced the cause of the Hungarian revolutionists in 1848; was aide-de-camp to General Bern and distinguished himself in the battle of Deva anEzasz-Sebes; statue to his memory in Budapest.
Ignas Josef Martinovics, 1755-1795, an old Franciscan, became one of the most rabid propagators of democratic ideas in Hungary; on accession of Francis II he headed a revolutionary movement, was beheaded in 1795 for a plot against the government.
Gyorgy Dozsa, born in the 16th Century, raised an army from the peasants, attacked Istvan Bathory, was burned to death on an iron throne with a fiery crown on his head.
Friedrich Engles, 1820-1895, a German, Socialist and associate of Karl Marx; edited several of the volumes of Das Kapital; spent time in England; took active part in founding of the International in 1864.

Bela Kun's government, the Magyar Tanacskoztarsasag or Hungarian Soviet Republic (shown on the stamps) lasted only 143 days, or until some time in July of 1919, when a Socialist government came into power.

NOTES: There are plenty of forgeries in the used copies of this set; the correct dates of usage were between June 24, 1919, and November 23, 1919. The entire set is known to exist imperforate.

 

No. 203-222


From June 24, 1919 until November 23, 1919 Bela Kun's government surcharged types A 13 with MAGYAR/ TANACS / KOZTARSASAG in 3 horizontal lines, and type A 14 with MAGYAR/TANACSKOZTARSASAG in 2 oblique lines.

NOTES:
There are many forgeries on these overprints.

 

No. 225-262

During this same period a government in opposition to the Soviet Republic government then in control of Budapest, was established and known as the National Counter Government in Szeged (a town in Hungary). This government surcharged Types A 9 and A 10 with the words in a square, MAGYAR / NEMZETI / KORMANY / SZEGED / 1919 (the translation reading Hungarian Government Szeged in 1919.)
On #240 and #241 new values were prepared by an additional surcharge.

#246-258 the above overprint was applied to those formerly overprinted Koztarsasag and #239 contains an additional surcharge changing the value.

William and Doris Stericker of the Austro Hungarian Philatelic society give us the following detailed information in connection with the SZEGED issues: The overprinting was started in King's Press in Szeged, but as the printing progressed, a printers' strike took place; a portion of the overprints were finished there, but since the owners of the press would not continue the work, the material was transferred to another print shop and there completed, so that the balance of the overprints were by non-professional hands and even by minor postal officials. Hence the preparation of the overprints was accomplished under considerable difficulty. This is noticeable in the overprints, since many errors occur in the text of the overprints. It is interesting that since the stamps were prepared in half-sheets in two different print shops, one may find a sheet in which the upper half (50 stamps) was done in one print shop and the lower half in another. One can see these differences in pairs from the middle of the sheet. Stamps with cinnabar or dark green were produced in the first print shop, and carmine or dark green in the second print shop. Also that values not given here with overprints or overprints in other than the given colors are proofs. They further tell us the overprint of print shop one can be recognized because the printing shows through strongly on the back. The following will give you a list of the number surcharged in the two print shops:

Reaper                    Issued      Press
2f. (g) Yellow brown      17,800      1
3f. (g) red lilac         51,400      1
5f. (r) yellow green      14,300      1, 2
6f. (r) green blue           900      1, 2
15f. (r) violet           11,300      1, 2
20f. (r) sepia*              400      1, 2
25f. (r) blue             22,800      1, 2
45 on 3f. (g) red lilac   50,000      1
open 4 ...............                1
Karl and Zita
10f. (g) brick red        16,400      1
20f. (r) dark brown       66,400      1, 2
25f. (r) blue              1,500      1, 2
40f. (r) olive             3,500      1, 2
Parliament
50f. (r) lilac             2,100      1
75f. (r) bright blue       9,700      1
80f. (r) yellow green      2,200      1
1k. (g) dark red          18,000      1
2k. (r) olive brown        8,600      1
3k. (r) dark violet, gray  5,500      1
5k. (r) dark brown           400      1
10k.(r) chocolate & lilac    400      1
10k. on 1 k.(g) dark red   5,000      1
Newspaper Stamps (Special Delivery)
(2f.) (g) orange          48,299      1
2f. (r) gray olive-red     3,700      1, 2
War Relief
10 (+2) f. (g) red        47,200      1
15 (+2) f. (r) violet     10,400      1. 2
40 (+2) f. (g) dark red    4,000      1

Koztarsasag Overprints on Reaper and Parliament

3f. (g) red lilac            700      1
4f. (r) slate              3,600      1, 2
5f. (r) yellow green       1,600      1, 2
6f. (r) greenish blue      2,700      1, 2
10f. (g) brick red         1,200      1, 2
20f. (r) sepia               500      1, 2
20 on 2f. (g) yell brown  50,700      1, 2
40f. (r) olive green      17,400      1, 2
3K. (r) violet and gray      800      1
Koztarsasag, Karl and Zita
10f. (g) brick red         1,300      1
15f. (r) violet            4,000      1, 2
20f. (r) dark brown          300      2
25f. (r) blue              2,000      1, 2
50f. (r) purple           22,200      1, 2
Koztarsasag War Relief
40 (+2) f. (g) dark red    2,600      1
Postage Due
2f. (r) green and red     13,600      1, 2
6f. (r)    "  "   "        4,100      1
10f. (r)   "  "   "       10,600      1
12f. (r)   "  "   "        8,400      1
20f. (r)   "  "   "        6,500      1
30f. (r)   "  "   "        4,400      1
50 on 2f. (r)   "         15,000      1
100 on 2f. (r)   "        15,000      1



This was a very unsettled period in Hungary, and rather than take the necessary time to issue new stamps, the supplies then in the various large post offices were surcharged or overprinted to fill the need, even to the extent of using up some values for which there was no use, by surcharging them with new values. These are all known to exist on cover and are just as much a part of your Hungarian collection as any of the other stamps, but the warning against forgery overprints cannot be stressed too strongly.

 

No. 265-305A

A still further group at Temesvar seized and surcharged types A 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 with the words BANAT BACSKA 1919 for use in this section of Hungary between the evacuation by the Serbs and the Romanian occupation of that section. These surcharges are in three lines oblique, or, two words at the top of a semi circle with the 1919 at the bottom. They were surcharged too, on the formerly surcharged Koztarsasag issues.

 

No. 306-310

After Kun's Soviet Republic collapsed he fled, and several new governments were attempted. They could gain no headway because of the Roumanian occupation of Budapest. The evacuation of the Roumanians was finally effected under the direction of four Entente Generals sent to Budapest to protect the Hungarians.

TYPE: A 13 ISSUED: November 16, 1919
Five values of A 13 were surcharged A NEMZETI / HADSEREG / BEVONULASA / 1919. XI/16. in four lines. (Entry of the National Army November 16 1919) into Budapest. These stamps were sold for two days only and were to commemorate or celebrate the Roumanian evacuation on November 14, 1919.


GENERAL POSTAGE ISSUES UNDER THE REGENCY

Admiral Nicholas Horthy, and his Army, took over the Government of Hungary in 1920 an instance of an Admiral operating a kingdom without a king.

 

No. 311-377

ISSUED: March 1, 1920
Types A13, A14, A9, and A10 surcharged with a sheaf of wheat and the date "1919" on a ribbon band in black.
NOTES:
Many forgeries exist on all of these the easiest to detect being the upstanding sheaf of wheat. On the genuine the shading lines run into the ribbon band between the "9" and the "1" of 1919, whereas on the forgery the band is plain behind all the figures 1-9-1-9.
The Hungarian name of the government printing department is Magyar Kiralyi Allamy Nyomda, and all stamps after this date were prepared by this department, with any necessary engraving work being done there.

 


No. 378-379

TYPE: A 23
ISSUED: February 27, 1921
PROCESS: Typographed
PAPER: Watermarked double cross
DESIGN: Madonna and child. Inscribed Magyar Kir. Posta (Hungarian Royal Postage)

And then the inflation set in and is shown very definitely by the higher values on the postage stamps of the country.

 

No. 380-387

TYPE: A 23
Re issued with the new watermark - four double crosses, from 200k through the 10,000k. 3,000k is known imperf.; 5,000k with center inverted.

 

No. 388-396

TYPE: A 13

Re issued on the new watermarked paper - four double crosses. The Parliament Building type has colored numerals.
NOTES:
No. 393 has an "800" in the upper right corner instead of 600.

 

No. 400-402

TYPE: A 24
ISSUED: February 1, 1925
PROCESS: Typographed
PAPER: Unwatermarked
PERF.: 12
DESIGNER: Franz Helbing
PURPOSE: To honor Jokai
DESIGN: Maurus Jokai, laurel wreath, his name, and year dates 1825/1925.
HISTORY: First commerorative issued by Hungary. Commemorated the birth of the Hungarian Novelist; a famous writer portraying life as he found it; also a great patriot and supporter of Kossuth. Jokai's best known works are "Sad Days" , " Men of Gold," and "Eyes Like the Sea." Born February 19, 1825.

NOTES:
Circulated only during February. Exists on very thin cigarettelike paper. First postage stamps (as distinguished from semipostals) inscribed MAGYARORSZAG (Hungarian Country).

 

No. 403-408

TYPE: A 25
ISSUED: April 1, 1926
PROCESS: Lithographed
PAPER: Watermarked four double crosses
PERF: 14, 15
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
PURPOSE: Entire new series of postage stamps because of change in monetary rates to filler and pengo
DESIGN: Crown of St. Stephen.
HISTORY: This is the first time the crown has been shown alone. This crown has a very long history. It is known as the Holy Crown of St. Stephen and consists of two crowns, the upper part presented by Pope Sylvester II to St. Stephen the first King of Hungary, in about 1000, in recognition of his efforts to bring to Christianity the various tribes making up the Hungarians; the lower part was received by King Geza I, from Michael Dukas, Emperor of Byzantium, in recognition of the cultural efforts of the Hungarians. Both crowns were later welded into one.
Perhaps you have wondered why the little cross on the top slopes to the left. There are many stories about this - one tells us that it was knocked sidewise in a battle; another one tells that it was a sign of servitude imposed by Charles VI as the result of an Hungarian insurrection; another one tells that Maria Theresa had the cross put in its original position, but that it began to slope again after the Revolution of 1849. If we are to believe another writer the bolt and nut which hold the cross in its place have been worn away in the course of the centuries and the authorities do not wish to renew the fastening. It is unlikely that Charles VI would attach the cross in such a position, since he and his successors were to wear the crown. It is also unlikely that Maria Theresa had the cross straightened, because she is seen wearing the crown with the cross sloping.
When Kossuth fled before the imperial armies in 1849 he buried the coronation insignia and the crown on a hill near Orsova.

 

No. 409-412, 413-414

TYPE: A26, A27
ISSUED: April 1, 1926
PROCESS: Typographed
PAPER: Watermarked four double crosses
PERF: (A26) 14, 15. (A27) 14½ x 14
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
PURPOSE: Regular postage with new gold value.
DESIGNS and HISTORY: St. Matthias Cathedral on St. Gellert's Hill, being the oldest church in Buda, and called the Coronation Church because here Franz Joseph was crowned in 1867. Below the church is the Fishers' Bastion.
Palace at Budapest - The first Royal Palace was started by Bela IV in 1247, on the Buda side of the River - later destroyed by the Turks - new one built by Maria Theresa in 1748 containing 860 rooms - fire partially destroyed it in 1847 was again restored and enlarged.

Prior to World War II was a show place of Budapest.

 

No. 415-417

TYPE: A28
ISSUED: Sept. 2, 1926
PROCESS: Engraved
PAPER: Watermarked four double crosses.
PERF.: 14
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
ENGRAVED: At Hungarian Government Printing Bureau
PURPOSE: Regular postage in the new pengo values
DESIGN: Madonna and child in a smaller size

 

No. 418-421

TYPE: A29
ISSUED: January 7, 1927
PROCESS: Typographed
PAPER: Watermarked four double crosses
PERF.: 14, 15
DESIGNER: Schwacz and Koch
PURPOSE: Regular postage values
DESIGN: Palace at Budapest, but with no boat in the foreground.

 

No. 422-427

TYPE: A30
ISSUED: August 1, 1928 (green, red, ultramarine)
August 1, 1929 (lake, violet, bistre)
PROCESS: Engraved
PAPER: Watermarked four double crosses
PERF. 14½, 14
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
ENGRAVED: At the Hungarian Government Printing Bureau
PURPOSE: In commemoration of the 800th anniversary of the death of St: Stephen.
DESIGN: St. Stephen
HISTORY: St. Stephen (Stephen I or Istvan I or St. Etienne 977 - 1038) was the first King of Hungary, 998 - 1038, at that time assuming the title of Stephen I First Christian King of Hungary. He was one of the great statesmen of history; his reign resulted in the establishment of the Hungarian church and the Hungarian state. Stephen was the son of Geza, Duke of Hungary, and Carlotta, one of the few Magyar Christian ladies. Stephen spent 25 years making his country the promised, land, and by the end of his reign Catholics of all nationalities found refuge there. St. Stephen was the husband of St. Gisela. He was canonized a saint in 1083.
NOTE:
The lake, violet and bistre were issued in 1929 in connection with the St. Stephen Festival.

 

No. 428-441

TYPE: A25, A26, A31
ISSUED: 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931
PROCESS: Typographed
PAPER: Wmkd. double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 14, 15
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
PURPOSE: Regular postage issues with new type of water mark
DESIGNS: (A25), Crown of St. Stephen; (A26), St. Matthias Cathedral; (A31), Palace at Budapest.

NOTES:
As the values were depleted new ones were prepared on the new watermarked paper; the figures on the A25 and A26 are much thicker than on the 1925-26 set - there are no serifs on the "1" or "4." The steamer (A31) is nearer the right of the design, and is much smaller than on the 1926 designs.
The 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 20 are known to exist on thin paper.

 

No. 445-449

TYPE: A32
ISSUED: March 1, 1930
PROCESS: Lithographed
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF: 14
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
PICTURES: Admiral Nicholas Horthy, his name, the dates 1920-1930, and a branch of laurel.
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 10th anniversary of the election of Admiral Nicholas Horthy, as Regent, on March 1, 1920.
HISTORY: Nicholas Vitez Horthy de Nagybanya, born 1868, elected Regent of Hungary in 1920; Admiral, army commander, painter, musician, married Magdalene Purgly de Joszahely. Is the father of Stephen Horthy.

 

No. 450-456

TYPES: A25, A26
HISTORY: Hungary reduced some of its postal rates in 1930 and adapted the obsolete 1926-1929 values to meet this new condition. The surcharge design did not merely blot out the old value, but the overprint was so designed as to reuse the word "filler"

 

No.458-461

TYPE: A33, A34
ISSUED: April 1, 1932
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 15, 14
PRINTED: At the State Printing Office at Budapest, where the designing was completed.
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 7th centenary of the death of St. Elizabeth in 1231.
DESIGN: Head of St. Elizabeth from an original painting. St. Elizabeth ministering to children
HISTORY: St. Elizabeth, Queen of Thuringia, born in 1207, daughter of Andrew II, King of Hungary, married at the age of fourteen to Louis IV of Thuringia; noted for her gifts to the poor; after her husband's death she was deprived of the Regency by his brother, was driven from her home with her three small children, found refuge with her uncle in Bamberg; later refused to return to the regency, lived at Marburg, administering to the sick and needy. She died on November 17, 1231 and four years later was canonized by Gregory IX for her work among the needy.

 

No. 462-465

TYPE: A35
ISSUED: May 1, 1932
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF: 12
DESIGNER: F. Helbing
PURPOSE: Regular postage, high values
DESIGN: Madonna, Patroness of Hungary and the child
HISTORY: The 1926 high values were about exhausted and a new design of the Madonna and Child was prepared and issued early in 1932 on the new watermarked paper.

 

No. 466-467, 480

TYPE: A25, A29
Because of another change in rates in 1932 an additional surcharge (large "2") was placed over the 6 on 8 magenta, and later on in the year the old 70 scarlet was surcharged with a 10 and 3 short bars at either side.

 

No. 468-479

TYPE: A36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47
ISSUED: August 1, 1932.
PROCESS: Photogravure from portraits
PAPER: Watermarked Double Cross on Pyramid
PERF.: 15
DESIGNED: From photographs and original paintings
PURPOSE: To publicize the national heroes.
DESIGNS AND HISTORY:
Imre Madach. 1823-1864, author of the great Hungarian dramatic poem "The Tragedy of Man."
Janos Arany, 1817-1882, poet whose ballads and epics are among the fundamentals of national poetry.
Ignaz Semmelweiss, 1818-1865, physician famed for his prevention of septic fever; writer on medical subjects.
Roland Eotvos, 1848-1919, distinguished physicist and inventor of the Eotvos Pendulum for ascertaining distant earthquakes and presence of water and minerals in the ground; writer on these subjects.
Count Stephen Szechenyi, 1791-1860, founder of the Hungarian Academy of Science and instigator of every intellectual and economic movement in Hungary during his lifetime. A statesman, soldier, and writer.
Franz Deak, 1803-1876, the wise man of the nation - a lawyer by profession, he initiated the peace between Hungary and Austria after the Hapsburg oppression.
Franz Liszt, 1811-1886, famed composer of Hungarian origin, a pianist. Writer on musical subjects.
Louis Kossuth, 1802-1894, leader in the struggle for freedom in 1848. Politician, editor, writer, statesman.
Stephen Tisza, 1861-1918, Prime Minister of Hungary before and during World War I, and victim of the Bolshevik movement following the war.
Michaly Munkacay (Michael von Munkacsy) 1844-1900, a celebrated painter, his works being associated with religion.
Alexander Csoma de Korosi 1784-1842. Explored Central Asia in a search of that country from which the Magyars derive their origin.
Farkas Bolyai, 1775-1858, philosopher, physicist and mathematician.

NOTE: All of the above are known to exist imperf.

 

No. 481-485

TYPE: A48
ISSUED: July 10, 1933
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF: 15
DESIGNERS: Julia Rauscher and Alexander Legrady
DESIGN: Leaping stag, double cross, and the Crown of St. Stephen, the three mountains and the word "Jamboree 1933"
PURPOSE: Issued in connection with the International Jamboree of Boy Scouts at Godolio, near Budapest, from July 20th to August 20th, 1933.

 

No. 486

TYPE A48a
ISSUED: May 6, 1934
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 15 (one stamps on a sheet)
DESIGN: Franz Liszt - taken from a photograph of a portrait now hung in the Academy of Music.
DESIGNER: (Frame) Zoltan Egry (Picture) corrected by Sandor Legrady
PURPOSE Issued for the 2nd Hungarian Philatelic Exposition at Budapest, and the 50th Jubilee of the First Hungarian Philatelic Society
PRINTED: At the Government Printing Office

NOTES:
70 filler was entry fee to the exhibition. Sold in connection with each ticket of admission to the exhibition at the Budapest International Fair. 50,000 sheets were issued. The marginal notes on the sheet read "II Orszagos Belyegkialutas / Tas" (at top) and "L.E.H.E. 1884-1934" (at bottom). The name of their Society is Levelbelyeggyujtok Elso Hazai Egyessuete.

 

No. 487-491

TYPE: A49
ISSUED: April 8, 1935
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Wmkd. double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12
DESIGNER: Adam Manyoki
DESIGN: Prince Francis (Ferenc) Rakoczi II, taken from a portrait, to the left coat of arms, above two diagonal ribbons containing the dates 1676-1735.
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 200th anniversary of the death of Prince Rakoczi II on April 8, 1735
HISTORY: Born in Transylvania, then a part of Hungary, not only a great hero but a master strategist; a statesman; artist and writer. For eight consecutive years fought for the constitutional and civil rights of the common people; twice declined to accept the throne of Poland, and at the end of the revolution he preferred exile rather than to live under a foreign rule. His body and that of his beloved mother, were returned and placed in the Cathedral of Kassa in 1906, but by the Treaty of Trianon, Kassa and all upper Hungary was ceded to Czechoslovakia, while his beloved Transylvania was annexed to Roumania.

NOTES:
140,000 sets issued.
Special cancelation used at Budapest on April 8, 1935.
The 10 is known to exist without the moustache.

 

No. 492-497

TYPE: A50, A51
ISSUED: September 25, 1935
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12
DESIGNER: Reszo Temple
PURPOSE: To commemorate the tercentenary of the founding of the University of Budapest by Cardinal Peter Pazmany
DESIGN: (3 values) Cardinal Pazmany inscribed Peter Pazmany Fundator Universitatis / Hungaricae and date 1635 (Hungarian University Foundation) (3 values); Pazmany signing the Charter inscribed Pazmany / Alairja Az Egyetem / Alapito Levelet / 1635-1935. (Pazmany signs the Document establishing the University).
HISTORY: Cardinal Pazmany was Primate of Hungary from 1616 until his death in 1637 (born 1570) having founded the University at Budapest in 1635. He is responsible for the restoration of Catholicism in Hungary and is considered one of the foremost Hungarian prose writers of the 17th century.
NOTE:
200,000 sets issued.
There was a very ornate first day cancelation from Budapest.

 

No. 498-502

TYPE: A52, 53, 54, 55
ISSUED: September 2, 1936
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 11½ x 12½
DESIGNER: Sandor (Alexander) Legrady
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 250th anniversary of the recapture of Budapest from the Turks in 1686
DESIGN: Ancient city and fortress of Buda; Guardian Angel over Buda; Shield of Buda with cannon and massed flags; First Hungarian soldier to enter Buda, and the dates 1686- 1936
HISTORY: Buda at that time was the capital city, but was later incorporated with Pest (Russian word for oven, referring to the lime kilns) on the opposite side of the river. Buda was recaptured by the combined forces of the countries of the Holy Roman Empire, Venice and the Papal states, under the leadership of Charles, Duke of Lorraine and Pope Innocentius XI in 1686, this being the end of the menace of Turkish domination of Christian Europe. Although the city had been nearly destroyed by the Turks, it was rebuilt in exactly the style in which King Matthias had built it. In connection with the celebration from September 1st to 3rd in 1936, the ancient fortress of Buda was again besieged, stormed and captured from the Turks by the Holy League of Europe.

NOTES:
Two first day cancelations were used at Budapest.

 

No. 503-508

TYPE: A56
ISSUED: February 22, 1937
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12
DESIGNER: Istvan Drahos
PURPOSE: In connection with the International Fair to be held at Budapest, April 30th to May 10th, 1937
DESIGN: Caduceus and three ribbons, with the words "Vasar / 1937 / Majus" (The May Fair's Stamp) and Budapest
HISTORY: The caduceus is the traditional symbol of the god Mercury and reminds us that this Greek divinity was the patron of traders and business men.

 

No. 509-510

TYPE: A57, A58
ISSUED: May 5, 1937
PROCESS: Photogravure from portraits
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 15
DESIGNS: Franc Kolcsey. 1790-1838, poet and author of the Hungarian National Hymn.
Mihaly Vorosmarty, 1800-1855, poet, dramatist, romanticist, legislator and jurist.

NOTE:
Change in postal rates necessitated 5 and 25 filler values, and although issued five years after the original famous men set should be kept together.

 

No. 511-524

TYPE: A59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66
ISSUED: January 1, 1938
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 900th anniversary of the death of St. Stephen
DESIGNER: Sandor Legrady
PICTURE: (A59) Pope Sylvester II and Abbot Astrik, receiving the crown, (A60) St. Stephen, (A61) St. Stephen seated on the throne, (A62) Saints Gerhardt, Emerich and Stephen teaching St. Emeric in the presence of his father, (A63) St. Stephen offering the Holy crown to the Virgin Mary, or the founding of the Hungarian Church, (A64) St. Stephen as King Stephen I, (A65) Madonna, Patroness of Hungary, (A66) The Crown of St. Stephen.
HISTORY: Pope Sylvester II was Pope from 999 to 1003; he introduced the use of Arabic figures into western Europe. Stephen, born 975, died 1038, became King of Hungary in 997; in order to make Hungary a Christian nation and to establish himself as a ruler, he sent Abbot Astricus to Rome to petition Pope Sylvester II for royal dignity and for power to establish episcopal sees. Sylvester acceded to Stephen's wishes, recognizing the Magyar nationality and endowing the famed kingly crown on Stephen. Stephen was crowned with it on August 17, 1001, at Gran, his birthplace. St. Stephen's son, Emery, (Imre, Emerich (1007-1031) or St. Emery the Saint of Youth) and the latter's tutor, the Italian St. Gellert or Gerhardt, are shown. St. Emerich, the only son of Stephen, was the last great man of the Arpad family, and was drowned because of his religious beliefs.

NOTE:
Beginning with this 1938 set we find the words "MAGYAR KIR. POSTA" restored to the stamps of Hungary. "Kir" is the abbreviation of Kiralyi (Royal) and Magyar Kir Posta means Hungarian Royal Postage. When the Republic was declared in Hungary in November 1918, the monarchy's Kir Posta stamps were overprinted KOZTARSASAG (Republic). (153-173). When these provisionals were displaced in 1919 the word KIR was dropped and MAGYAR POSTA (Hungarian postage) used (174-197). Later in 1919 radicals came into power, with Bela Kun dominating the government, and during his regime stamps were inscribed MAGYAR TANACSKOZTARSASAG (Hungarian Soviet Republic). Admiral Horthy was made Regent under a restored monarchial constitution in 1920 and stamps inscribed MAGYAR KIR POSTA again were issued (beginning with 335). In 1925 the KIR was abandoned and MAGYARORZAG, meaning Hungarian Country, was adopted. With this 1938 set we go back again to MAGYAR KIR. POSTA, although Hungary was then a Kingdom without a king.

 

No. 525-527

TYPE: A67
ISSUED: January 1, 1938
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12½ x 12
DESIGNER: E. Englerth
PURPOSE: Regular postage series, high values
PICTURE: Admiral Horthy (Niklos Horthy da Nagybanya, Regent of Hungary)

 

No. 528

TYPE: A68
ISSUED: August 12, 1938
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF: 12
DESIGNER: Alexander Legrady
PURPOSE: To honor Budapest Philatelic Exhibition or Third National Philatelic Exhibition.
PICTURE: The 20 f carmine of the St. Stephen set-St. Stephen seated on the throne.
NOTES: 100,000 issued. Sold at the exhibit post office only in exchange for a coupon attached to each admission ticket. A coat of arms on either side of the stamp; "Orszagos Magyar Belyegkiallitas" across top (III Hungarian Philatelic Exhibition) and the word "Budapest" above the stamp. "Az Eucharisztikus Kongresszus Aokaimabol / Szent Isvan Kiraly Jubileumi Edeben/1938" across bottom (On the occassion of the Eucharistic Congress during the Jubilee Year of St. Stephen First King of Hungary)

 

No. 529-534

TYPE: A69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74
ISSUED: September 24, 1938
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12, 12½
DESIGNER: Adam Cziglenyi
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 400th anniversary of the founding of the Debreczin College
PICTURE: (A69) The College of Debreczin
(A70) An 18th century view of the college
(A71) Three students of the 17th and 18th centuries
(A72) 19th century view of the college
(A73) George Marothy and the dates (1715 1744)
(A74) Stephen Hatvanl and the dates (1718 1786)
All stamps bear the inscription "Debreceni Collegium 1538-1938"
HISTORY: In the 16th century the population of Debreczen attached itself to the Calvinist Reformation. A small Roman Catholic school was taken over by the Protestants and became the college which played a leading role in the reformation of the country. The institution as it appeared in the 18th century, 19th century and 20th century appears on the stamps. Gyorgy (George) Marothy (1715-1744) famous mathematician, historian, professor, music authority, author, and reformer, was a student here, as well as Istvan (Stephen) Hatvani (1718-1786) a physics professor, astronomer, pioneer in electricity. Since 1914 the college has been known as the Debreczin State University of Sciences.

 

No. 535-536

TYPE: A61 and A66
Toward the end of the year 1938 two of the 1938 types were overprinted with carmine or blue, "Hazateres 1938" (Return Home 1938), to commemorate the restoration of the territory ceded by Czechoslovakia, and the liberation of those territories from the Czechoslovakian rule.

 


No. 537-550

TYPE: A75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82
ISSUED: June 21, 1939
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF: 15 and 12
DESIGNER: Sandor Legrady
PURPOSE: A regular postage series, called the Churches' series.
PICTURE: (A75) Crown of St. Stephen, legend "Sacra Corona" in semi-circle above crown
(A76) St. Stephen wearing the crown, with the words "Rex" and "St. Stephanus"
(A77) Virgin Mary wearing the holy crown, or the Madonna and Child, Patroness of Hungary
(A78) The Coronation Church at Budapest. Here are kept the Crown of St. Stephen, scepter sword and coronation robes, as shown in the background, and the words: Koronazo Fotemplom
(A79) The Reformed church at Debreczen, with coat of arms of the church in the background, and the words: Debreceni Nagytemplom
(A80) The Cathedral or Archbishop's church at Estergom, with double cross, hand of St. Stephen and coat of arms of the Arpad dynasty in background; and the words Esztergomi Bazilika
(A81) The Deak Square Evangelical church at Budapest, with cross, bible, bunch of grapes, and head of wheat in background; words: Deak Teri Evang. Templom
(A82) The Cathedral of Kassa with the Rakoczi coat of arms in background. Here his body was finally buried in 1907. The words Kassai Szekesegyhaz.

 

No. 551-554

TYPE: A83, 84, 85, 86
ISSUED: July 21, 1939
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF.: 12
DESIGNER: Sandor Legrady
PURPOSE: To commemorate the Girl Scout Jamboree held at Godolio National Park near Budapest. This Congress was known as the first "Pax-ting" lasting from July 27th to August 9th
PICTURE: Each has a three leaf clover, the international badge of the Girl Scout movement, with two stars.
(A83) a hand raised in Scout salute and olive branch in background.
(A84) Hungarian Girl Scout insignia composed of Shield of Hungary, Crown of St. Stephen and Lily.
(A85) Heads of typical Hungarian Girl Scouts.
(A86) Dove of peace with olive branch, banner in background representing international and national badges.

 

No. 555-557

TYPE: A87, 88, 89
ISSUED: March 1, 1940
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked cross on pyramid
PERF: 12
DESIGNERS: Ferenc Marton and Sandor Legrady
PURPOSE: To commemorate the 20th anniversary of the election of Admiral Horthy as Regent of Hungary
PICTURE: (A87) Admiral Horthy at Szeged in 1919, as Commander in Chief of the National Army. Cathedral of Szeged in the background and date 1919.
(A88) A bust of Admiral Horthy from a portrait, with the coat of arms and dates 1920-1940.
(A89) The 20 is symbolical of the restoration of the territory taken from Hungary after World War I, and returned by Czechoslovakia, picturing an angel ringing the bell of liberty, and the Cathedral of Kassa, Kassa being an important city again within the Hungarian boundaries. This bears the date 1939, and alludes to the fact that the territory was thus returned in 1939 during the twenty years of government.

 

No. 558

TYPE: A90
ISSUED: December 1, 1940
PROCESS: Photogravure
PAPER: Watermarked double cross on pyramid
PERF: 12
DESIGNER: Sandor Legrady
PURPOSE: To commemorate the recovery of northwestern Transylvania from Romania, or the return of Erdeley, Transylvania, to Hungarian rule.
PICTURE: Warriors of the Middle Ages at either side of the double Royal Crown, superimposed on bright rays. St. Stephen with the sword and Apostolic Cross at the left and St. Ladislaus with the battle ax and the orb at the right.

HISTORY: The Nazis dictated this restoration under the Vienna Conference on August 30, 1940, and the occupation was completed on September 13, 1940. The inscription under the crown KELET VISSZATER means the east returns.

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